A supercharger is a pump that compresses and forces intake air into the cylinders of a gasoline-powered car. Since superchargers are usually driven by the engine (rather than being powered by recovered exhaust gas like a turbocharger), they use engine power to increase engine power. Because they are not fuel efficient, they are usually only used to increase the speed of less efficient, “high performance” vehicles.
Supercharging should not be confused with turbocharging. Turbocharging refers to the use of turbines, powered by the engine’s exhaust gases, to force large amounts of air into the engine’s cylinders. This process produces more power in both diesel and conventional vehicles because they run on a greater volume of air and fuel. The more air the engine can take in, the bigger the bang during the power stroke of the four-stroke power cycle. At first, cars were turbocharged to perform better on racetracks, but when automakers began to put smaller engines in larger vehicles to lighten their weight and conserve fuel, turbocharging provided a way to increase the engine’s power so that these bigger vehicles wouldn’t be sluggish on the road.
Here is how turbocharging works:
1. The hot exhaust gases leave the exhaust manifold, but instead of going directly through the exhaust system and out of the vehicle via the tailpipe, they first pass through a turbine, which is just a fan that’s set in motion by the expanding gases.
2. A shaft connects the fan to a compressor, which blows fresh, filtered air into the cylinders. (On a carbureted vehicle, the compressor takes the fuel/air mixture and blows it into the cylinders.)
3. The excess and used exhaust fumes pass from the turbine to the exhaust system and continue on their way to the tailpipe and out into the air.
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The heavier the engine load, the hotter and faster the exhaust gas turning the turbine gets. The faster you turn it, the more air the compressor sends to the engine, and the more power the engine can produce. When developing diesel vehicles, the pressing question was how to convert a car known for being noisy, underpowered and smoky to be faster, quieter, and more efficient to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements . turn out Really inspiring. Turbochargers can increase the performance of a diesel car by 50% while reducing fuel consumption by 20 to 25%! Since the turbine itself is powered by hot gases that would normally exit the exhaust, you don’t need to provide any extra power to power it. What a great example of recycling!